In the case of a railway track, the track bed with the assembled tracks,is called permanent way. The foundation, a solid base for the track structure, is located underneath it. The permanent way normally consists of the ballast track bed on which sleepers are placed and the rails which are fixed on the sleepers with fastenings. The ballast track bed is very good at absorbing the forces introduced by the vehicles and can distribute them on to the foundation
The value added chain in the maritime industry encompasses not only the shipyards and the producers of components and systems but also various services in technical and business management fields. In this respect, the German shipbuilding industry earned a turnover of approx. € 18 billion per year with a total of approx. 2,800 companies and 80,000 employees. The total turnovers of the German shipyard businesses with 50+ employees currently amount to approx. € 5 billion with an export proportion of nearly 75 %
Ever more significance is being attached to underwater welding due to the increasing utilisation of offshore wind farms. Underwater welding is used for the construction and maintenance of docks, waterways, underwater pipelines, lock installations, dams, hydroelectric power stations and offshore platforms, for shipbuilding as well as for salvaging measures. At present, the public is following the complicated salvaging of the Costa Concordia cruise ship off the Italian island of Giglio. This is only possible due to one of the largest deployments of welding divers in history.
Pipeline construction encompasses all types of pipelines which are utilised for transporting all kinds of things, e.g. liquids, gases and district heating. All over the world, approx. 155 million tons of steel pipes made of various materials are produced per year. In this respect, German steel construction producers account for approx. 2.7 million tons.
Pressure devices are defined by the European "Pressure Device Directive" (PDD) 97/23/EC. The directive stipulates the requirements on the pressure devices for the introduction of pressure devices on to the market within the European Economic Area. Since the 29th of May 2002, the PDD is binding throughout the European Union.